Understanding The Composition of Printed Circuit Boards

pcb-assembly A printed circuit board or PCB is a very important part of electronic equipment such as computers. This is often called printed wiring cards or printed wiring boards. It is basically a small piece of layered boards with pad and lines that link different points and components together. Components such as connectors and resistors are mounted on the surface of the PCB with a metal solder. Signals and power pass through the connections, which allow the entire circuit to function.

Basically, a printed circuit board is composed of several alternating layers of various materials. These materials are joined together through a lamination process, using adhesives and heat. The layers include the following:


The FR4 is the substrate of base material of the board. This is the middle layer. Fiberglass is the most common material used for this layer, which is designated as FR4. This solid core provides the PCB thickness and rigidity. Flexibility, as seen in some boards, is achieved by using high temperature plastics that are very flexible such as Kapton.

The thickness of this layer varies, from very thin ones to thicker boards. Most PCBs are at 1.6 millimeter or o.o63 inches thick. To know more about it visit www.pcbnet.com.

FR4 or fiberglass can be very expensive. Some manufacturers opt to use cheaper substrate materials such as phenolics and epoxies. These are inexpensive but are much less durable compared to FR4. Also, these inexpensive materials emit a distinctive unpleasant smell when soldered. Phenolics have the tendency to smoke, char and delaminate when exposed to the soldering iron for too long. This is because the thermal decomposition temperature of phenolics is low. PCBs with phenolics and epoxies for substrates are often used in the manufacture of low-end types of consumer electronics.


After the substrate is a layer of thin copper foil. This material is laminated into the substrate using adhesive and heat. A double-sided printed circuit board has copper foils attached to both sides of the base material. This type of board is often referred to as 2-layer board or double-sided PCBs. Cheaper boards, often seen in low-cost electronics, only have 1 side that contain a copper layer. More expensive ones can have as many as 16 copper layers.

The thickness of the copper layer varies, which is determined by weight as oz/ft2 (ounces per square feet). This would be equivalent to 35 μm (micrometers) or about 1.4 thousandths of an inch (1.4/1000 inches) of copper. Most boards have copper layers of 1 ounce per square foot. Some boards have as thick as 2-3 ounces of copper per square foot. These boards can handle very high power and are often used in high-end electronics.

Solder mask

PCBThe layer of solder mask is next. This layer gives the board’s distinctive color. For most boards, the solder mask layer gives its green shade. This is placed on top of the copper layer in order to insulate copper traces that may accidentally come in contact with the solder, conductive bits or with other metals. The solder mask is spread over most of the board to cover all the small traces but leaves the SMD pads and silver rings exposed where components are soldered to.

The solder mask layer also allows users to properly attach and solder components to the board and prevent solder jumpers. Green is the most common solder mask layer color but other colors are also available such as white, purple and red.

Silk Screen

This is the white layer applied over the solder mask layer. The silkscreen layer adds the numbers, symbols and letters to the surface of the printed circuit board. These allow easier assembly and enables users to understand the board better. The function of each LED or pin can be indicated through the silkscreen labels.

The common color for this layer is white. Other colors are available as well, such as yellow, black, red, and gray. However, on most boards, only one color is used for this layer.

Why You Should Be Using Iron On Patches

Love embroidery or appliques but hate the hassle of losing needles or the cat running over that third ball of thread? If that sounds like you, then this just might be the best time to opt for iron on patches. We all have a wide variety of options to choose from here.

Introduction To Patches

So what is iron on patches? Basically, they are also pieces of embroidery and appliques – only smaller, since the idea is we get to decide where the decoration should be placed on a piece of maybe outfit, or even a pillow case, handkerchief, curtain, or whatever piece of garment or cloth is there that needs designing.

How does this work? Well, all one has to do is to put it on their target piece of clothing, iron on, and set. Once our patches have cooled down, then we can see the design of our dreams sort of coming to life.

But of course, this is not just for those with whimsical fashion interests. Iron on patches are also for the practical person – those who are in need of a certain patterned patch in a hurry.

Iron on PatchesWhere To Get

For the best deals on patches, we could all go to Patches4less.com. Here, we have the option to choose from designs they have already made, or actually come up with our own. What do we get by coursing our patch needs through Patches4Less? Basically loads of free service and a free hand to decide on everything? Let us give our readers the low down on what to expect when transacting with Patches4Less:

  • You always get the quote for free – whether it’s the first, the second, or even the third time our customer is asking for a revision to the design of their iron on patches, rest assured that they will not get charged extra. The company only charges for approved designs that have already commenced production – not prior to it.
  • Of all the colors in the patch, seven will be for free. By that, we mean THREAD colors. A merrow or merrowed border also comes as an additional without any cost on the part of the customer.
  • Set up is for free for all the patches, whether iron on or custom with Velcro or tape backing. Shipping is also for free so long as one uses Fedex and is just within the U. S.
  • Our customers get the opportunity to order as many as they want, for as long as it is on or beyond the minimum allowed number of pieces which is ten per customer.
  • The patches are usually sized 2” by 4”. They could of course opt for a hundred percent embroidered batch of patches, but if it is beyond what the budget allows, we are willing to slash the embroidered material to half or up to 75 percent of the entire custom iron on patch.
  • Aside from iron on patches, this website also allows the customers to choose among tape backed, Velcro backed plastic backed or button looped patches. For patches with iron on or plastic backing or those that have a button loop, all the customer has to do is to add $ 0.11 for each patch ordered. On the other hand, for tape or Velcro patches, there is a twenty percent surcharge for every patch.

How To Use

Once you have ordered your iron on patch sets from Patches4Less, just follow these very easy instructions:

  • Place and lay out the fabric of choice smoothly on the iron stand. The wider the base where the fabric is spread on to, the better to allow for flexibility of movement.
  • Put the patch on top of the preferred spot on the fabric. Note: it is better to do this one at a time, so as to prevent messes and errors and even botched patches or fabrics.
  • Pre heat the iron to the hottest setting. Carefully place a lightly moistened towel right on top of the patch.
  • Once the iron is hot (and we hope it gets hot soon enough), it’s time to press on to the spot. Hold for up to thirty seconds to make sure that the patch has adhered.
  • To check if the patch has actually adhered to the fabric, remove the towel and lightly push the patch with one finger to see if it budges.

If you need more help about patches, whether in choosing among different kinds or in getting them properly attached, just head on to our humble abode on the web.

Iron On Patches running from Scout gatherings of different types, outdoors fixes, fire fighter patches, police patches, EMT patches, and military patches, to corporate patches for Fortune organizations.

The Passionately Funny Motivational Speaker

“The only way to STAY motivated is to continually motivate others”.
– Garrison Wynn

Motivating and feeling motivated is an endless passion for our Garrison Wynn. When we make other people feel motivated, it gives a warm sensation inside us to continue further. It gives us the feeling of healthy confidence to push others forward towards achieving their own success. To witness them succeed is also a great achievement.

One influential and highly entertaining motivational speaker is Garrison Wynn who dedicated his career in helping various companies from being plain mediocre into exceptionally the best it can be. With the combination of his amusing sense of humor and informative keynotes, the contents of his company customized messages definitely hit the minds and hearts of his audience. Do you want to know more from us?

“Comedy is truth–only faster. Things are funny because they’re true. If people relate, they retain.” – Garrison Wynn

We know that laughter is the best medicine, or so they say it’s good for our health –

Best Motivational SpeakerIf we’ll take medicine, then we are probably sick. Like a person with disease taking medications to feel better and be cured, an organization like a company has problems that need to be solved.

When we tackle problems, we have to see the truth behind it and within it. As the saying goes, “the truth shall set us free”. Maybe it’s freedom from secrets, hidden agendas and of course, from more troubles. Sometimes, we have to be brutally honest to let others see the real problem, but being brutally honest is difficult as being brutal can really hurt.

When a person is hurt, he cannot process the truth in a good way –

Here goes comedy to loosen up the tension. When we use humor alongside that killer keynote message, we can reach the core of those involved. They listen and process the message, thus, they laugh and can relate to it. When people connect to the message, they have the tendency to retain its meaning.

“No communication takes place until the other person feels heard”.
– Garrison Wynn

We need to see the reasons behind and the truth within our problems. If the problem is difficulty in dealing with a co-worker or even a customer, then consider hearing out its concerns and complaints, and to listen truly. Make that difficult person feel heard. Maybe there are reasons why he is difficult to deal with. We need to understand him first before we expect him to understand us. Show him the kind of treatment that we also deserve from him. When that person see and feel that we’re genuinely caring for him and his welfare, his difficult attitude towards us will change, and good communication will thrive from there.

“You can’t change people but you can effect a change in them by your behavior.” – Garrison Wynn

The power to influence others positively with what we say and how we act, even if we’re not the best, is an awesome talent. Motivating others is a passion, which drives from within. When we act as a catalyst of positive change, it ignites a fire of transformation. These are transformations that can bring sustenance to any business industry and even push companies ahead on top.

Motivational SpeakerWe know that each company is unique no matter how similar it seems with the rest in its industry –

Every challenge it faces is different from its neighbor. Its will to survive and continue for generations to come is a spark we want to ignite and see burning its competitors to the ground (not literally). In our talks, we customize the contents according to the goals and needs of your company. You set goals, and we will deliver goal-oriented powerful messages from a good motivational speaker, plus we’ll make it extra funny and witty.

At motivational-speaker-success.com, we create motivations and turn them to solutions. With the help of our motivational speaker, we guarantee to influence your every decision and to drive you towards success. We offer seminars about anything business related from teaching highly effective leadership styles, to successful employee management and engagement, to skyrocketing sales techniques and a whole lot more. We have it all just for you!

If you need a motivational speaker for your next corporate event, consider our very own Garrison Wynn. With his highly energetic and funny approach to real life situations, you will surely retain insights and knowledge and feel entertained and motivated. Let us do the talking and motivating for you! To learn more about us, visit our site motivational-speaker-success.com and plan your events with us.

The Basic Golf Equipment Checklist

Are you a golf newbie, stepping into the world of hole-in-ones and strokes for the first time? Perhaps it’s the image of limitless green fields and the serenity you feel before releasing a shot that draws you in to the sport. Before you step into the outdoors with visions of the good games ahead however, it’s best to make sure you’re prepared.

Pack your bags with the essential golf equipment and know about their proper uses in order to be one step closer to being a golf expert. After all, you have to make sure you’re familiar with the tools you’ll be using before you want to practice any techniques and drills.

Golf Bag

Getting the right kind of golf bag can seem like a pretty simple task at first, but after taking a look at the different types of bags we sell at rockbottomgolf.com, you’ll soon realize that there’s a huge selection to choose from. So now you may be wondering what kind of bag is best for you. We’re here to explore the different golf bags and their specific uses.

The first bag on our list is the cart bag. As the name implies, it’s a light bag made to be kept and carried in a golf cart. It’s highly recommended that you don’t carry this around the course on your own and always mount it on a cart before mobilizing.

Golf BagsCarry bags are a good type of bag to start with, as they’re more suitable for those of you who prefer to carry your golf equipment on your own. They have straps similar to that of backpacks, which means you can carry them on your back. Just be sure not to overload as golf equipment tends to get heavy no matter what bag you’re using.

If you happen to have a caddy to do the lugging around for you, then using a staff bag is an open option. They can be some of the heaviest bags around but are big enough to fit a large assortment of equipment.

Golf Clubs

Now you’ve got your golf bag, but what about clubs? You may have heard of putters, which are a commonly used club among golfers. They are used when there is a short distance between your ball and the hole, in which you simply need to move the ball a short distance with precision.

In contrast, woods are used for long distance shots. Despite their name, they are no longer purely made out of wood and are instead a combination of metals. You can reach shots longer than 300 yards by using woods or drivers and are thus usually used at the start of longer distance plays.

Irons are a mid-range club, which can make shots in less than 200 yards. They come in a variations of 1- to 9-. 1- to 2-irons are rarely used due to their difficulty, so 3-irons and above are what you’ll most likely be packing if you want to get your ball flying.

Golf Balls

If you’re a beginner, then using one-piece golf balls is a must. They’re light and inexpensive, which means you can go all out in your long distance shots without worrying about losing a ball or breaking it. As time passes, however, you may consider getting two, three, or four-piece balls. The two-piece ball will provide a good amount of durability and are the most commonly used construction. Three and four-piece gold balls are good for controlled flight, as the three-piece has a good spin to it while the four-piece drives the longest while still having controllable spin.

Golf BallsAs a golfer, don’t be overwhelmed by the amount of equipment made available at first glance. At rockbotttomgolf.com, we aim to make buying your golf equipment a simple task, as long as you know what you need. Being familiar with the tools you plan on using can ensure that you won’t be making any unnecessary purchases and save you money and time.


If you want to buy the basic golf equipment with affordable price so you must visit rockbotttomgolf.com. We are one of the best golf equipment providers.

Reasons Why Your Business Needs SEOExplode SEO Service

You probably have encountered the term SEO, but do not actually understand what it means, or maybe you only have a vague understanding about it, but do not know the details about the importance of SEO to the success of your business. Either way, SEOExplode SEO service is going to set things straight about SEO.

Definition of SEO

Search engine optimization or SEO is the process to make sure that search engines can index and rank your website appropriately. It is not really an advertising tactic, but more accurately a benchmark of website development that presents your website the best way possible.

SEOHere is a good explanation: Imagine your business website as a billboard. Of course, you want a good-looking billboard that will catch the attention of many people. So, what is next? If you are just going to put up your billboard in a deserted area in the middle of nowhere and expect for the best, you might not get a lot of people to see it. Now, suppose that it does not provide your contact information like email or phone number on it. Do you think that your billboard would be effective? No, not at all.

Sadly, SEO Explode notices that a lot of businesses are using this kind of method with their websites. Visually, their sites may be great, but not everything is about that. Remember that all websites are placed online together with millions of other active websites. There is nothing to make it stand out or at least distinguish it from the others. There might be a keyword, for sure, but in general, the website is on the same level as the billboard located in the middle of nowhere – incompetent and useless.

SEO functions similarly as putting up your billboard through a digital sign on a well-travelled road. More people are able to see your website because you arranged it in a way that the people who would best benefit from it are able to see it. Moreover, people can access your website because they can easily recognize your contact information, and your website would draw in customers because you would have content marketing involved in it.

Roles of SEO

Above all else, SEO could help your website rankings and rake potential customers. It is designed to increase website visibility, promote your business constantly, increase sales, expand your business to a targeted and more global market, and keep the competitive advantage of your business. This is exactly what SEO services by SEO explode can do for your website. There are some methods to conduct SEO, and they include:

  • Creating title and meta tags that contain relevant keywords
  • XML sitemaps
  • Link building
  • Using ALT texts in images
  • Content marketing building

These are only some of the things SEO companies use to help your business have a solid online presence. Remember that there is a lot more that may be involved like having an active newsletter or a blog. SEO also means monitoring customer satisfaction and getting rid of certain things from your website, including broken links and overused flash.

Reasons for Using SEO

SEO Explode outlines the reasons your business cannot ignore SEO any longer.

  1. Customers check product reviews – before making a purchase, most customers go online to check for product reviews. When you use SEO, it ensures that your target customers would find your business. Online users seldom go past Google’s first page. So, you might lose potential customers if you do not use SEO.
  2. SEO helps you keep up with competitors – most likely, your competitors use SEO, whether you use it or not. Do not fall behind and bring your online marketing strategy up-to-date. SEO is especially helpful if you have a local business as it allows you to stand out in local searches. Even if you have a well-established business, a competing business that invests in SEO to promote itself and attract new customers can still displace your website. Do not be left behind and use SEO service now.
  3. SEO is cost-effective – perhaps the biggest misconception about SEO is that it is only for big companies. You may think that a small business cannot afford SEO services by SEO explode, but in fact, online marketing is really measurable and affordable, compared to offline marketing. If you compare the offline marketing investments of most small to medium businesses against SEO, you will find that they have gained more potential customers by using SEO than other offline marketing techniques. Moreover, organic and local searches have given them the best quality leads compared to other kinds of online marketing. For this reason, it makes sense to use SEO, regardless of what market sector your business occupies and its size.

Start Building your SEO

You might have an issue with SEO if you notice that you have not been highly successful with your online presence. SEOExplode SEO service is an expert when it comes to identifying SEO issues of your business and it can create sustaining SEO. It can also help in educating small to medium businesses on keeping their SEO updated. A good SEO company would thoroughly work with you to custom-build your SEO and at the same time, encourage you to actively take part in the process. With them, you can enjoy the benefits of SEO without any headache. You just cannot ignore the capabilities of a high quality SEO for your business.

Throwing Darts At SEO – Figuring Out What Works and What Doesn’t

Not everything that you do in terms of internet marketing is going to pay off up front. There are millions of people today trying to get attention to their websites and it’s not really happening. The reason why this is not working well overall is because it just seems to be isolated to the wrong areas overall. Throwing darts at SEO is what you’ll be doing when you are trying to build the right collateral to get attention online today. In fact, you could end up losing focus overall because there are so many components that you have to leverage moving forward. Finding the right relationship online between search engine results and the right parameters that will help you build a good deal of traffic is just not simple any longer. There was a time when things seemed a bit simpler, but that’s long gone, and therefore a bit of trial and error is in order to get any sort of leverage moving forward

Internet MarketingWhen it comes to internet marketing, you are going to find that there are several paths that you can chase. If you think that you can just move forward within the realms of traffic generation like you could in the past, you would end up losing out on the bigger picture, guaranteed. The main issue that you are going to have to deal with in this regards is finding a path that is going to help you overall, and not just in a short term but a long term.

Some people find themselves dropping out of the arena of marketing because they go down a path that is far more complicated than they understand. You may find yourself dealing with a variety of the same issues that others are, as it becomes apparent when nothing is going on with your traffic. It’s imperative that you look at analytics from time to time to see whether or not you’re getting any sort of leverage with what you’re working on.

In order to find the right arena online, you are going to have to take this to task. You’ll need to understand what is going to work and what doesn’t, so that you are able to gain a sort of leverage that most people don’t really see overall.

Throwing Darts

Seo ConsultantWhen you throw darts at the various aspects of SEO, you’re going to be trying to do what many professionals are doing right now. They are trying to figure out what is going to work best for their clients. It’s easy to get caught up in the wrong areas online, and you may find yourself seeking the best route moving forward, and end up losing out on the right arenas. Most people don’t get the metaphor here, but it’s really a matter of trial and error when it comes to internet marketing. The reason why most people don’t really make a splash within their own marketing collateral is because they aren’t sure what is going to work best for them in the long term. It’s something that most are going to have to deal with as a different element overall.

Throwing darts at what does work will give you an idea as to what is needed in regards to building SEO campaigns that actually work. Some things don’t work and that’s the issue. You’ll have to play a guessing game in most niches because if you emulate what others are doing, you’re going to end up missing out overall.

The Real Way To get Traffic

Terrific TrafficThe best way to build traffic today is to look into marketing collateral that is placed into your site by a professional site. When you work on a professional grade solution, you are going to see the changes on your page fast. From optimization that is for your page up front to other elements of change, you will find that professionals will take on the task with a much easier momentum that you will do alone. Most people don’t get this, and therefore they try to build their own DIY elements moving forward. There’s nothing wrong with DIY, but if you can’t manage it all, you’re going to end up dealing with a variety of issues that are going to end up causing you a lot of issues moving forward. Focusing on the right elements moving forward means that you will need to focus within the parameters of marketing as a whole, and that is not easy to do on your own.

The real way to get traffic comes through in two fold solutions. Either you pay up front to cycles of PPC or you look into getting a good deal of traffic through marketing collateral such as market share that comes from hiring a professional. Professional search engine optimization experts can give you a fighting chance moving forward, and definitely cycle through the right relationships. Focusing on what the marketing elements of the real world internet marketing channels are is the key, and that’s done through hiring a firm that knows what they are doing. If you don’t hire someone, you could end up dealing with a variety of issues trying to find the right solution moving forward.